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Vol 06 No. 10 - July 1929

The First President Of Texas

Account of David G. Burnet, venerable president of the Republic. Excellent account of his life.

Further Mentions: He was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1788. * he joined Mirandi's expedition against Venezuela * obtained an Empresario contract * in 1831 he married Miss Estis, of New York * joined Mirandi again in his attack upon Garacas * Mirandi was captured but Burnet escaped * engaged in mercantile business a t Natchitoches, Louisiana * he led a wandering life with the Comanches on the frontier' of Texas * with his young wife sailed for Texas,, in the schooner "Call." * wrecked at Bolivar point, and Mr. and Mrs. Burnet, at considerable peril, made their way through the breakers and drenched with the waters of the sea, reached the beach * Mr. Burnet, whose home was on the San Jacinto river * represented Liberty in the Convention of 1833 * He also drew up a set of resolutions strongly denouncing the African slave trade * he was appointed a district judge for the department of the Brazos * Ahnonte * Almonte * New Washington * Buffalo Bayou * Lynchburg * Velasco * John Adams * it was rumored that Burnet would be assassinated. On the night, of the expected assault, Mrs. Burnet kept a light burning, and sat at an open window, with a cocked pistol in her hand, determined, if necessary, to die defending her noble husband. * Colonel Millard arrived at Velesco with informal orders to arrest the president and take him to the headquarters of the army for trial. * Colonel A. Turner * T. F. McKinney, the Jacks, Wartons * a company of troops, known as the Buckeye Rankers * conflict with General T. J. Chambers * Mr. Preston Perry, of Galveston * Colonel A. M. Hobby *


TEXAS EX-RANGERS' REUNION

Mentions such men as Captain Dan W. Roberts, Captain John R. Hughes, Captain James B. Gillett, B. F. Gholson, W. W. Lewis, Captain June Peak, Captain Brooks, Captain Rogers, and Captain Ira Aten


Covington, A Town Of Pioneer Days

By Gertrude Thornhill.

The town of Covington, once far surpassed Fort Worth, both in population and significance. The town was founded in 1852 by James J. Gathings. Gathings was born in 1807 in South Carolina. His mother was Jane Jackson Gathings, kinswoman of Andrew Jackson, and his father was James Gathings one of the wealthiest planters and slave owners of Anson County, South Carolina. In 1827 he was married to Martha Wall Covington, daughter of William and Mary Covington of North Carolina. When it was time for them to embark upon their journey to the promised land of Texas, all the neighbors and relatives gathered to bid the Gathings family farewell and little Will Gathings waited impatiently for the termination of the reams of advice and promises, cautions and frequently repeated farewells. Will could see no point in the whole procedure and was eager to be off. At last when the family had been warned three times by every member of the gathering to be careful of the Indians, the caravan got under way, and to the tune of fading farewells, creaking wheels and the cries of the drivers, the wagons bearing the Gathings family, 100 slaves and all their material possessions moved off toward the far "black lands" of Texas.

The first part of the journey was through the pine forests and creek bottoms toward Jackson, Miss. At night, when the woods began to grow dim and shadowy, the caravan halted. The negroes built huge fires around which the whole group would sit listening to the tales the father would tell of the boundless prairies, of deep, rich soil, and an abundance of game-of vast herds of buffalo, deer and antelope, wild turkeys and a few bears thrown in. There were accounts, too, of Indians and of bands of outlaws who feared neither God, man nor the devil-all of which made the boys' eyes grow round with awe and something else that might have been fear. Anyway, Will remembers that one evening after the camp fire session was over, one of the negroes said to him: "It may be a fine place, Buddy, but what you gwinter do when dem Injuns done kill you?" It was not a cheerful prospect even to "Buddy" for the time being, but when the sun was shining again and the drivers cracked their whips above the heads of the mules and horses, he forgot the terrors of marauding Indians and thought only what a fine thing it was to be moving on and on.

Further Mentions: the road from Fort Worth to Hillsboro * Cousin James Gathings * the then celebrated Flatterer stock of horses noted in Mississippi * Wackom * Corsicana, Navarro County * James Gathings became the owner of about 10,000 acres of land located on the east side of the cross timber belt and established his home about one mile from the present site of Covington * he named Covington for his wife, Martha Wall Covington * Covington became one of the first prohibition towns in Texas * Among the early settlers in this town were Rev. Thomas Stanford and his family and Dr. Church, who became the first president of the college Gathings later established * Mrs. A. B. Cogdell of Itasca * Chief Jose Maria * his brother, Philip Gathings settled in an oak grove two miles south of Covington * John A. Stevens * Lizzie Gathings * Colonel Gathings also owned one of the largest hog ranches in Texas * James Gathings was a stock raiser and introduced Durham cattle into this part of the State * during the fifties he established a steam mill, saw mill, tannery, shoe, boot, saddle and harness plant, machine and wool shops, improved cloth loom and brickyard-all the first in Hill County and among the first in Texas * In the early sixties James and Philip Gathings established Gathings College * Henry E. McCulloch, brigadier general * B. H. Epperson. Throckmorton; R. H. Taylor, Saul A. Roberts, S. C. Robertson, John H. Brown * During the reconstruction period Gen. E. J. Davis was elected Governor of the State, under the "radical regime", and during his administration came the odious militia bill, police bill, printing bill, school law and all the leading "radical" measures of the Twelfth Legislature, which culminated in martial law for Hill, Walker, Limestone and Freestone Counties, and the murder of Godley, House, Mitchell, Applewhlte and others by negro policemen * 'Sol' Nicholson * Lieutenant Pritchett * Sheriff Grace * James T. Ratcliff of Hillsboro was his attorney * Numbers of land grants are still in the possession of the family. One of the oldest written on heavy parchment-was given in 1855 by Governor Houston covering the land where Covington now stands * Mrs. A. B. Cogdell, his daughter *


TEXAS' FIRST RAILROAD

The first railroad built in Texas was chartered to run from Galveston to Henderson, the county seat of Rusk county, then an important commercial center. It was from this charter that the road got its name. That it was never extended to Henderson was due to the outbreak of the Civil War, which brought lean years so far as revenue was concerned, and the further fact that another railroad was first to reach the territory.

The road was chartered under a legislative act approved Feb. 7, 1853. On Jan. 10, 1854, the Legislature passed a supplementary act granting eight sections of land for each mile of road the company constructed. Again, in Feb. 1856, another supplementary act was passed granting...

Further Mentions: Benjamin T. Terry, who reorganized the company and operated the road until 1870 * F. P. James, of New York * . A. Cowdrey and John J. Donaldson * Jay Gould and Russell Sage * Virginia Point * Buffalo Bayou * A single train each way was operated for several years. Fair speed was maintained from the beginning, the distance of 50 miles being covered in about three hours.


Arms And Tactics Of Cortes

By Colonel C.. C. Smith, U. S. Army, Retired.

Excellent account of the arms and tactics of the era of the conqueror of Mexico, and of the conquistadores following him. Though the arms and maneuvers of the time of Cortes were simple, as compared with those of today, they were highly effective against all enemies, especially the Indians who were greatly intimidated by the smoke and fiery blast of many of the armaments and artillery pieces of the Spaniards. This is an excellent and detailed account of early munitions.

Further Mentions: The infantry was made up of eleven "tercios" or small companies, which included one of "ballesteros" or crossbowmen; and one of "escopeteros", or men using the "escopeta" or fire-lock or arquebus, which about that time began to be used as a military weapon. It superseded the cross-bow, and was then about as important an advance in arms as the breechloaders was over the muzzle-loader of modern times * "nuez de cuerda." * (literally cord nut) was an iron ball, about the size of a baseball, covered with spikes from a quarter to a half an inch long, which was attached to a leather thong or light rope five or six feet in length * the "ichcahuipilli" * the "rodela" * the "morion" and "cabasset." * the "burgonet" * Pedro de Alvarado, Cristobal de Olid, Alonzo Hernandez de Portocarrero, Gonzalo de Sandoval, Juan Velesquez de Leon, Rodrigo Rangel, Alonzo de Avila, Francisco Montejo, Francisco de Morla, Francisco de Saucedo, Jaun de Escalante, two Jimena brothers, and two brothers of Pedro de Alvarado * cuirass or placcate * "penache". * "gachupin" * "tapaderos" * The falconet was a long and slender gun, and of greater range than the bombard. It was something on the order of the Moro "lantaca" so familiar to those have been in the Moro country of the Philippines. The "pedrero", or stonethrowers, as its name implies, was a swivel-gun, and its ammunition was rounded stones from arroyos and river beds * cross-bowmen and arquebusiers * the red and yellow standard of Castile and Leon * Cierra Espana! * cargadores * Juan de Onate * Frederick Remington

Such artillery as Cortes had was commanded by Francisco de Orozco, and was made up of ten "bombardas", four "falconetes" (falconets) or "culebrinas" (culverins), and a number of "pedreros" (stonethrowers). The "bombarda", bombard or connon, might, by a stretch of the imagination, be likened to the modern one hundred and fifty five, while the "falconetes" would be the French seventy-fives. This comparison is hardly a good one, but is used to show a difference between the bombard and the falconet. The "pedrero" was still a smaller gun.


George Lord, A Texas Pioneer

By F. G. Carnes.

George Lord was born in Essex County, England, April 21, 1816, and was a son of Felstead and Anna (Siggs) Lord, both natives of England. The father was a bricklayer and by accident, while repairing a hot brick oven, lost his life. This was when our subject was but an infant. The mother married again and died in London when eighty-two years of age. George Lord was educated in his native country and there continued to make his home until June, 1834, when he took passage for America. Mr. Lord joined Capt. Cameron's Company at Corpus Christi and was with him at the battle of Lipantitlan, July 7, though during that battle he was engaged in scouting duties, at Salado, and was near San Antonio in September of that year and in the battle of and surrender at Mier, which led to the most dramatic incident recorded of war, the bean drawing. After the surrender Mr. Lord and his comrades made several attempts to escape, first at San Juan river and next at Rinconade, both failures, because of treachery in their own ranks. The third attempt was at Salado, Mexico, where they were imprisoned, and was successful through a piece of marvelous daring. His account of the events at Salado, and the drawing of the beans is very excellent and sobering. It is included in the great story.

After escaping, these brave men retreated toward Texas through a weary, barren land, without the shadow of a great rock to refresh and sustain. They went three days without water and were forced to kill their horses for food. Finally on the eighth day, famished and exhausted, they were easily recaptured by the pursuing Mexicans and were marched to Salado, where on the 25th of March, the bean drawing took place. The following is Mr. Lord's account of it: "Soon after our arrival at Salado we received the melancholy intelligence that we were to be decimated and every tenth man shot. It was now too late to resist this horrible order. We were closely handcuffed and drawn up in front of our guards, who with arms were in readiness to fire. Could we have known it previously we would have again charged the guards and made them dearly pay for this breach of national faith. It was now too late. A manly gloom and proud defiance pervaded all countenances. We had but one alternative, and that was to invoke our countrymen and our country's vengeance upon our murderers, consign our souls to God, and die like men. The decimator, Col. Domingo Huerta, who was especially nominated to do this black deed after Gov. Mexier had refused, arrived at Salado ahead of our men. The 'Red Cap' company were to be the executioners-those men who had been so humanely spared by us at this place the 11th of February. The decimation took place by the drawing of black and white beans from a small earthen mug, the white beans signifying exemption and the black death. One hundred and fifty-nine white beans were placed in the bottom of the mug and seventeen black ones were placed on top of them. The beans were not stirred, and had so slight a shake that it was perfectly clear that they had not been mixed together, thus showing that they were anxious to catch Capt. Cameron and other officers who had to draw first. Capt. Cameron, with his usual coolness, said: 'Well boys, we have to draw, let's be at it', and thrust his hand into the mug and drew a white bean. Capt. Eastland was the first to draw a black bean. They all drew their beans with a manly dignity and firmness which showed them superior to their condition…

...They all begged the officer to shoot them in front and at a short distance, and said that they were not afraid to look death in the face. This he refused to do and to make the cruelty as refined as possible, fired at several places, and continued firing from ten to twelve minutes, lacerating and mangling those heroes in a manner too horrible to describe. Such was the effect of the horrible massacre upon their own soldiers who were stationed as guards upon the wall above, that one of them fainted and came near falling over. During the martyrdom of these noble spirits we were separated from them by a stone wall fifteen feet high, and heard their last and horrible agonizing groans.

Further Mentions: Capt. Lyons * rvice at Camp Independence, on the Lavaca River, in John Holliday's (who escaped from the Fannin Massacre) Company of the Second regimental volunteers, under Col. Wiggington * . Jarden's Company * the ranch of Col. Patton * a man named Tolbert * Col. Burleson's fight with Cordova on the Guadalupe, near Seguin * Capt. Dawson's Company * Gen. Canalis * the taking of Guerro * the battle of Saltillo * Col. Jordon. * Malano and Lopez * Poor Robert Beard, who lay upon the ground near by, ill and exhausted from his forced marches, called his brother William, who was bringing him a cup of water, and said: 'Brother, if you get a black bean, I'll take your place, I want to die.' The brother with anguish replied: 'No, I will keep my own place. I am stronger and better able to die than you.' * Cocke * Judge Gibson * Gen. Waddy Thompson, American minister * Poor Henry Whaling * J. L. Shepherd * L. L. Cash, of Pennsylvania; J. D. Cocke, of Virginia; Robert Dunham, of Tennessee; Capt. William N. Eastland, of Tennessee; Edmond Esta, New Jersey; Robert Harris, of Mississippi; Thomas L. Jones, of Kentucky; Patrick Mahan, of Ireland; James Ogden, of Virginia; Charles Roberts, of Tennessee; William Rowan, of Georgia; J. L. Shepherd, of Alabama; J. M.. M. Thompson, of Tennessee; J. M. Torrey, of Connecticut; James Turnbull, Scotland; Henry Whaling, of Indiana; and M. C. Wing, of New York. * Walter P. Lane * J. E. Wool * Matchula * Gen. Taylor * John Dusenberry, of New York * Gen. Walter P. Lane, Texas * Huchuctoca * Perote Castle * 280 acres. of land which he selected in the beautiful Cheapside country * he was married to Miss Kate Myers, who was born in New Orleans, Oct. 15, 1832 * Robert H. Dunham * D. Headenberge


Indian Territory Incidents

By Major-General David C. Shanks, U. S. A. Ret.

This story first of all deals with the court which had jurisdiction over the entire Indian Territory in all cases involving members of the white race, which was the United States Circuit Court for the Western District of Arkansas, at Fort Smith, Arkansas. This court had to practice its judgments in a territory that for years had been cursed with criminal refugees. They committed some crime back at their homes, and fled from justice, taking refuge in the land of the Indian where by their acts and their influence over the young men they made a hot-bed of crime. The criminals were then brought back to face hanging in Fort Smith, sometimes up to 6 individuals at one time on the gallows. The criminals, rather than being sobered in the last moments of life, all competed with ignorant bravado as to who could die the “gamest” death, and thus leave a morbid legacy in the halls of the ignoble.

Then the account goes on to describe four particularly evil figures in the criminal element of the Indian Territory: Crawford Goldsby, alias "Cherokee Bill"; the infamous "Buck Gang" consisting of five half breed Creeks. This gang was in existence but thirteen days. It was organized for just one purpose-to make for itself the worst criminal record ever made on the Aremican soil; John Childers, a half breed Cherokee Indian who had committed an especially brutal and cold blooded murder and Belle Starr, a female bandit and murderer who died with her boots on.

Further Mentions: the Hon. Isaac C. Parker * Fort Gibson * there was a sort of consensus of opinion that the Creek half breeds were the worst of all criminals * the Dalton gang, the Starr gang, * Rufus Buck * Okmulgee in the Creek nation * Fort Concho, Texas * Judge and Mrs. John Shirley


Charles Mulhern, Fort Davis Pioneer (photo included)

Account tells of venerable banker and business man of Fort Davis, Charles Mulhern, who was born in Ireland, September 14, 1832, and 20+ years later, settled in Fort Davis and had made it his home until the time of his death. During many years he followed the general live stock and cattle business, but in 1910 sold out his cattle, though he still retained his old ranch in this vicinity. On October 31, 1911, Mr. Mulhern organized the Fort Davis State Bank and was its president until 1915, and its director until 1922. His influence has left his name and legacy an enduring historical mark in Jeff Davis county.

Further Mentions: Charles Mulhern State Bank * he married Mass Eva Phifer, who was formerly from Switzerland * Robert D. Mulhern * He was a prominent Mason, having taken thirtytwo degrees of the Scottish Rite, and belonged to the Blue Lodge and the Knights Templar Commandry of the York Rite, and also the Mystic Shrine * He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, belonged to the Fort Davis Commercial Club *


BUILDING OF NEW RAILROAD OVER PLAINS IS DESCRIBED

By J. A. Drummond, Paris, Texas.

The first railroad going across the Western prairies was the Union Pacific, which was from Omaha, Neb., on west. Previous to the building of this railway almost all the freighting to Denver and all points west were loaded at Nebraska City. In the spring of 1867, the Union Pacific had reached North Platte, about 200 miles west and all freight was then loaded at North Platte, the western terminus of the road…

Further Mentions: North Platte was then a town of about 4,000 inhabitants, and was only a few months old. The largest houses were for gambling, dance houses and saloons. Every man carried a six-shooter and would have felt as uncomfortable without his gun…* the Union Pacific railway * Fort Laramie, Wyo * Juleburg, Colo * Fort C. E. Smith, Montana *


GEN. HOUSTON'S MOST COURAGEOUS SPEECH

Gen. Sam Houston, who was a very forceful public speaker, probably made the most courageous speech of his life in the old Tremont House in Galveston, early in 1861, after he had been deposed as governor. The old general and statesman braved the snarls of a great crowd that had every semblance of a mob, and by his daring won a considerate and respectful hearing. This is the account of that fateful day.


Old Austin And Round Rock Road To Fort Concho

By E. M. Ainsworth

"The Old Austin-Ft. Concho Road" has been chosen as the subject to be presented and it also includes in its scope the old road from Round Rock. The road most used to Ft. Concho was from Austin, also Round Rock, to Liberty Hill, Strickland,' Sage, Dobyville, Naruna, McCreaville, Mix, Old Senterfitt, Red Bluff Crossing on the Colorado river, San Saba, Richland Springs, Pear Valley, Paint Rock, and on to Ft. Concho. The other route, not so much used, was the road from Round Rock and also from Austin to Spicewood Springs, Rutledge, Old Bagdad, Liberty Hill, Lewiston, Burnet, Llano, and on to Ft. Concho. A few who traveled the route via McCreaville and San Saba went to Brownwood, but this was a detour. Sometimes a freighter would have half a load to Brownwood and half a load to Ft. Concho, causing this detour.

These roads, though at first traveled but little, were laid out probably as early as 1850, or perhaps a very few years earlier than that. But for many years the tide of travel was small, as it was many miles between homes of the pioneer settlers, and there was little traffic from the outside, most of the settlers living on what they could raise in the way of livestock and a little corn and grain, supplemented by wild game, honey and by a very rare trip for supplies to some of the few centers of distribution then in the southern and southeastern portions of the state. But these roads were destined to bear, and did bear, for many years, a mighty argosy of freights later, and until they were succeeded by the railroads in the eighties and early nineties. The I. & G. N. Santa Fe, Austin and North western (now the southern Pacific) were really the line which brought the first railroad borne freights to the vicinity of these areas, and until some time after the railroads came, the sections dealt with knew little or nothing of really good roads or even passable roads.The hauling of freights from the nearest railroad points began with the coming of the I. & G. N. to Round Rock and Austin, and H. & T. C. to Austin...

Further Mentions: Ed Howard * Mr. Hicks * Liberty Hill * the Austin and North western * Marble Falls * Burnet on Hamilton Creek * Dr. Thomas Moore of Waco, father of Tom, Luke and Bart Moore * the pioneer Gracy * the "Baker Indian Fight" * the hamlet of Naruna in Burnet county * Rev. I. H. Ainsworth, a Baptist minister * Pecan Springs in Burnet county * the great Indian fighter, Big Foot Wallace * my first railroad engine, on the I. & G. N. tracks * the East prong of the Ft. Concho highway * Fred W. Ater, with the K. C., M. & 0. railroad at San Angelo * Allen C. Ater, with the Santa Fe * the late G. Wash. Jones * Miss Rebecca Grant of Lampasas * the "free grazers," * The "wire cutters * Joe S. Thompson of Waco * Sam Bass, noted desperado * the I. & G. N. on its way to Georgetown * John Wesley Hardin, Bill Longley * W. A. Morrow * Ranger Ira Aten * the "Lost Bowie Silver Mine * Robt. D. McAnelly. who settled in what is now McAnelly's Bend on the Colorado river * old Ben Milam * Lometa * Susan Vince * Deaf Smith * Thomas Pratt, a pioneer who is credited with having established the livestock business in sections of the old road * Tom Snyder * his brother Dudley * Rev. Josiah Whipple * Tom Dietrich of Austin who had established a ranch in the edge of Burnet and Lampasas counties * Aaron Burleson of Austin, also Joe Burleson * My grandfather settled on Onion Creek near Austin * Tom Walling of Austin * The Santa Fe in 1882 built from Temple to Lampasas, rested, then on to Brownwood, rested a bit, then built on into new territory * The Austin and Northwestern was built out, from Austin to the Burnet and Marble Falls sections in the early eighties as a narrow gauge * the first superintendent of the A. & N. W. line was the late A. N. Leitnaker of Austin * Clerk D. H. Hart * The Austin and Northwestern line, as indicated above, finally became a part of the H. & T. C. railroad and then the Southern Pacific and was made a standard gauge *


Henry Dillard's Battle For Life

By John C. Jacobs, San Antonio, Texas

Henry Dillard, the subject matter of this article lived 40 miles north of Fort Griffin at old Fort Belknap, Shackleford County, Texas.

While traveling home after a dance at Fort Griffin Henry got sleepy and gave the line to his little brother while he took a snooze. While dreaming of the lovely time of the night before he was awakened by a Comanche yell. Straight ahead he saw seven hostile Indians formed in V shape coming at full speed toward him. He grabbed his old Spencer rifle, jumped out of the wagon and shot the leader's horse from under him.

There was a post oak woods about 300 yards distant. All frontiersmen know that the plains Indians will not follow the enemy into the woods-they have learned that to their sorrow-so Henry knew his only chance was to make that woods and he realized that it was a ten to one shot. It is a strange fact that on such occasions there is a something comes to us with supernatural power, a something that steadies our nerves and banishes fear.

So Henry, with his little brother ahead, and this pack of savages at his heels, fought his way towards the woods. He would run thirty to forty steps, then turn and fight and check them, then heel it again. The Indians were all mounted. While running Henry stumbled and fell, his little brother thought him killed, and he opened fire on them. The Indian leading the bunch also thought Henry killed and just raised in his stirrup to dismount and scalp his victim, when Henry …

Further Mentions: General McKenzie in a campaign against Comanches and Kiowas on Catfish Creek in Blanco Canyon


Old Times In San Antonio

By Vinton L. James (2nd installment)

Before the Civil War San Antonio was fast becoming a prosperous city, which was supported by a fast growing country that was stocked with vast herds of cattle and many sheep. Along the many beautiful streams settlers from other states were settling to engage in farming and stockraising. Protection from Indian raids by the United States troops, who occupied the many frontier posts in Western Texas, promised security and confidence for the future. San Antonio was poised to prosper in the richness of ante bellum days. This is a great history of the early days of prosperity in Old San Antonio.

Further Mentions: James R. Sweet, Nat Lewis, who came to Texas in 1842, the Vance Brothers, Samuel Bell & Sons, Groesbeck & French, and Wilson Riddle. * James R. Sweet was mayor of San Antonio many times His first term was in January, 1855, and after that he served four other terms * Charlotte James who eloped with him when she was a pupil in a convent in Nova Scotia * the old Daily Herald * his home at the head of the San Antonio river * Brackenridge Park and the Incarnate Word College grounds * Alexander Sweet was a son of J. R. Sweet, and afterwards became famous as the editor of The Texas Siftings, published in Austin and New York. He was a graduate of Heidelberg University in Germany, and surprised his parents on his return to San Antonio by introducing his wife, a pretty German girl, who was Miss Zittell * the San Antonio Gas Works, located on West Houston Street * Mr. Torrey * The Casino German Club * Market Street * The Menger Hotel, on Alamo Plaza * The U. S. Arsenal, on South Flores Street * Major J. H. Kampmann, G. A. Duerler, Dan and Barney Oppenheimer, Manuel Yturri, Col. M. Pyron, Gen. William Steele, Col. T. G. Williams, H. B. Andrews, J. R. Sweet and Gen. George Howard. * After the Civil War business was at its lowest ebb, there being no money to make improvements or to keep the city clean. Real estate was a drag, its value destroyed by taxes. The gas works, completed in 1859, was idle, there being no funds to run it. The streets at night were dark. The plazas during the rainy weather were quagmires; people who went abroad at night carried lanterns to avoid mud puddles. Paschal Square, on the west side, had a deep gully, where dead dogs and cats were thrown and the stench was something awful. The trash and garbage was thrown into the back yards. Drinking water was obtained from shallow wells and irrigation ditches, and this water became contaminated from outhouses and typhoid fever and malaria was always prevalent. Livery stables did a big business, while the grain waste and garbage harbored thousands of rats and millions of flies, which were the principal inhabitants of San Antonio in those gloomy days * the Vance House, at the corner of Houston and St. Mary's Streets * General Albert Sidney Johnson * the Vance block on Travis Street * the enclosure between Navarro and St. Mary's Streets * Capt. William Tobin's hotel opened at the corner of St. Mary's and Houston Streets in 1872 * one Indian buck named Castalito * Houston Street in the early days was called by the' Mexicans and Americans "Paseo Hondo," or Deep Gully * all the land lying east of Travis Park and north of the Alamo, and crossed Houston Street where the Washer store is now, extending south across the Maverick building lot to where it entered the San Antonio river, and where the North Presa Street bridge is now * The most valuable property today is on Houston Street * The Vance Brothers and Samuel Maverick, in 1866, owned all the north side of Houston Street, extending from Alamo Plaza to St. Mary's Street. * there was no Avenue C, or Jefferson Street * the Maverick, at Alamo Plaza, Sappington and Lingweiller's at the corners of Houston and Navarro * On the south side was the James Vance, the Dr. Herff, the Dittmar, and Proffer Plaeggue's. Afterwards Mr. Crider had his carpenter shop where the Central Trust Co. bank is now. Wagner Bros. had a planing mill and carpenter shop where the new Majestic Theater is being erected * The Samuel Maverick Estate * the corner of Jefferson and Houston Streets * the "Alamo Literary Society," * J. H. Kampmann erected an ugly soft rock onestory building, which enclosed a large room with a stage that was used for theatrical performances * J. M. Vance a grocery at the corner of Avenue C and Houston Street, in the late seventies * W. G. Edwards became his partner and the business was moved to the northeast corner of Navarro and Houston Streets * The U. S. Military headquarters were located in the Maverick building, on the south side of Houston Street January 1, 1878 * The U. S. Cavalry had their stables at the corner of Losoya and Houston Streets, which extended south along Losoya to the Losoya residence, where the cavalry officers had their quarters * Sappington's Livery Stable was located on the north side of Houston Street next to the bridge * the Texas Theater * F. F. Collins had his machine and windmill shop there * The Maverick Bank building * Representative Olan R. Van Zandt * Heirs of Thomas F. McKinney * Reynolds Lowry, Annie McKinney Lowry and Mrs. Mary Nelson Lowry Nolan


A Texas Pioneer In Arizona

Coconio (Arizona) Sun, April 19, 1929

Account of long-time Texas cattleman, Tom Brown, a true veteran of the Texas cattle trails. Tom Brown was born on a cattle ranch near San Antonio in 1863, long before the first cattle drives was among the first along the Guadulupe river. His grandfather settled in that country in 1824 when the country still belonged to Mexico. Tom Brown's father and uncle John were fighting for the Texas troops in 1836 when the Alamo fell. During that fierce struggle his father supplied beef to the troops. The first congress that ever sat in the republic of Texas met at Tom's grandfather's home at Columbia. A picture of that house hangs in a glass case in the Alamo, that famous stronghold, dear to the hearts of Texans, now a state museum. Tom Brown could ride like an expert, punch cattle like an old hand, and shoot straight from the hip when he was 13.

Further Mentions: Charles Goodnight * Mr. Loving * Germans settled the little town of Comfort. The descendants of these people, Tom's school mates, live there today * General Mackenzie * Los Vacas creek, across the Rio Grande * Lieutenant Bullis * In 1870 we lived in a big stone house on the Rio Frio * Doan's store * the crossing of the Platte river at Ogalalla * the battle of 'Dobe Walls * the Hash-Knife outfit * Old Colonel Hughes * Tom Brown helped round up and load the first Hash-Knife cattle for shipping to Arizona in 1886, and he was well acquainted with Colonel Hughes * Lola Stevens, daughter of Henry Stevens and lived near Bandera, Texas * Tom punched cows for various ranches and finally went in for himself in the Mogollon Mountains, north of Silver City * Cripple Creek * Jessie, Mrs. A. T. Keeslar of Williams. Another daughter, Ada, who was the wife of Charles Burtan * two brothers, J. D., and K. W. Brown, who were in the sheep business near Ash Fork and it was through them that he came to Arizona * He bought Bill Friedlein's ranch on Marshall Lake * winter range in near Castle Hot Springs * Assistant District Attorney J. E. Morrison and Deputy Sheriff Frank Burns * Justice of the Peace Gillett and Constable Foley from Ash Fork.


From Longhorn To Thoroughbred Cattle

By Cora Melton Cross.

Story of the earliest days of the cattle industry when the longhorn was king, and the transition that came in the course of time. Story focuses on old-time cattleman, R. C. Ruckman of Tilden whose parents came to Karnes County from Pennsylvania, before the Civil War. His Father soon put up a little store at Helena, then a small village, and there the settlers and ranchmen bought their supplies. But in 1870 he went into the cattle business, was very successful and added to his stock of groceries and ranch supplies the needs of the trail drives in order to provision the chuck wagons for the various outfits, on their start up with a herd.

“Yes,” said R. C. Ruckman of Tilden, speaking about things that were and others that are, “the world sho’ do move. I can remember when there was not, by any stretch of imagination, cattle that could be called fat on any Texas range. We had lots of room with no barbed wire and nobody thought of talking about land in acres, sections, leagues and labors. Headrights were not enough out of fashion to get down to parceling out a few measly acres. Cattle were everywhere then, for range was wherever they elected to graze and now there is not a doggone Longhorn left to show folks what we used to work with, unless they are in a rodeo or something that you have to dig up a fiver to look at. Yes, sir, that is a fact and these boys who play golf and bridge have no idea what we used to wrestle with when a cowboy really belonged, and was not a danged feed and cattle farmer. As for myself, I do mighty little of the farm end. I have been running cattle too long to take to it.


Experiences Of A Frontier Sheriff

By H. W. Baylor, San Antonio, Texas

Account of a desperate situation in Montell, TX while Baylor was sheriff of Uvalde county. Staring death in the face, at the hands of a Mexican horse thief, a small incidental in the arrangement of the new style of Winchester rifle at that time saved his life, and turned the situation around.

Further Mentions: Captain Thomas Clubb, the justice of the peace, who lived several miles up on Montell Creek * his father, General Baylor * Dr. Whipple * to J. R. Hofheins * a man named Smith


Old Stage Routes Of Texas

J. D. Fauntleroy.

Long before the days of automobiles, travelers in Texas were carried over the then existing highways in stages. How important these stages were to the people can be inferred when we read in old records that in the early days of the Republic there were 30 stage lines operating in Texas, of which one ran from San Antonio to San Diego and another from Sherman, Texas to St. Louis. These stages for a long time were the only means of conveyance between "Texas and the United States," and were valued accordingly. This lengthy account offers great detail in the placement, operations, notable incidents and eye-witness experiences of those stage lines.

Further Mentions: In the Texas almanac of 1875 we find mention made of the following State Lines: "Travelers leaving Galveston, can by steamboat, go, to Liberty, and thence, by' four-horse coaches, via Smithfield, Livingston, Moscow, and Sumpter to Crockett.

The same point can be arrived at by steamboat to Houston, thence by Central and Houston Railroad to Cypress; thence by four-horse coaches via Rosehill, Montgomery, Huntsville and Cincinnati.

At Crockett four-horse coaches go to Nacogdoches, via Alto and Douglas; also from Crockett, via Palestine and Kickapoo, to Tyler.

From Nacogdoches four-horse coaches, via Mellrose, San Augustine, Milam and Sabine Town, to Alexandria, in Louisiana.

Also from Nacogdoches to Waco, via Rusk, Palestine, Fairfield, and Springfield.

Also from Nacogdoches, via Crockett, Huntsville, Austin, Washington and Independence, to Brenham.

Also from Nacogdoches four-horse coaches, via Mt. Enterprise, Henderson, and Camden, to Marshall, and thence to Shreveport, La.

From Huntsville two-horse hacks, via Madisonville, Leona, Centerville, Fairfield, and Corscana, to Waxahachie, striking at this latter point the great Northern Mail from San Antonio to Clarksville.

From Henderson, two-horse hacks, via London, Tyler…

Later other stage lines were established of which some of the most noted were the "Chidester Stage Line", from St. Louis through North Texas to El Paso and on to San Francisco, and "The Butterfield, Southern Overland Mail, Stage Line" established 1853 between St. Louis and San Francisco and whose route was as follows…:

These stage lines had relay stations at which the tired horses were replaced with fresh ones. On the shorter routes there were regular stopping places for meals and for lodging, but on the trips across the plains, the stages traveled night and, day regardless of sand storms, rain or blizzards, and few were opportunities to get anything to eat, so travelers generally carried their rations along with them. After a week or two spent on a stage, a traveler became so accustomed to the jolting that he could sleep in his seat. General Anson Mills, who made such a trip from El Paso to Washington, D, C. in 1861 was so tired when he reached California, the terminus at that time of the Mo. and Pacific Railroad that he fell asleep in the station and slept continuously for nearly 24 hours thus missing his train. There are many interesting tales of incidents that took place on these old stages, one of which is as follows:

Years ago Bishop Gregg, the much beloved Bishop of the Episcopal Church, was going by stage from San Antonio to San Marcos. He was the only passenger. The stage was held up by a highwayman who told the bishop to hand over his watch and his money, but the bishop remonstrated saying "My watch is old and would be of little or no value to you but it is of great value to me on account of the many pleasant memories associated with it. I therefore beg you not to force me to give it up. Also I have very little money barely enough to carry me through this trip. You see a preacher is always a poor man." The robber then inquired "What church do you belong to?" The bishop replied "I am a bishop of the Episcopal Church." "Hell" exclaimed the bandit "That's my own church," whereupon he apologized to the Bishop for having bothered him...

Yet Further Mentions: James E. Birch * Maj. J. C. Woods * Capt. Skillman * at old Jefferson there was a stage line from Old Jefferson to Dangerfield to Mt. Pleasant and to Sulphur Springs * stage line from Jefferson to Marshall to Tyler, to Canton, to Kaufman and to Dallas * The Old Chidester Stage Line * the Cotton Belt Railroad South * After T. P. Railroad * Fort Concho * Fort Davis. * Temple Houston * Esquidiho Springs * the El Paso Mail Company * Major Ben Ficklin * the Star Route system. Ficklin and Sawyer were the contractors * Menardville to Ft. Mason, Fredericksburg, Boerne * Ft. Chadbourne, Ft. Phantom Hill and Ft. Griffin to Jacksboro * The Old Butterfield Trail ran from… * Cole Younger, and Frank James * the Ft. Worth and Denver R. R. * stage drive was from Haralson to Vernon * Carlsbad (Tom Green County) hit the Main Concho at Dry Creek, thence by Camp Charlotte, Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos, Ft. Stockton, Ft. Davis, Ft. Quitman and Ft. Hancock to El Paso * Lieutenant Mackson


Tells Of Depredations Of Early Day Robber

First-hand recollections of Mr. W. J. Ellis who drove a stage line from San Angelo to many other points, and who had numerous experiences with robberies, desperados and depravations.

Further Mentions: the San Angelo to Ballinger stage * the present site of Rowena * Miles * a cowboy, Jim Newsome * Rube Burroughs * Potter and, McDaniel * Edgar Stillson, a ranchman * Miss Dixon * Dr. S. L. S. Smith * Pete King's saloon about where the Crystal theatre is * Crows Nest * Stutz' Variety Troupe * Miss Potter


WHEN CAMELS WERE BROUGHT TO TEXAS

An attempt was once made to solve the transportation problem in the U. S. with Camels. The solemn-looking beasts would have played a part in the development of the West, but for the breaking out of the Civil War.

Several camel-laden vessels docked at Galveston during the years between 1856 and 1859. The camels were imported from Africa for use of the U. S. army and after a thorough trial were pronounced adapted to the needs of the army. One of the last cargoes of camels received at Galveston was shipped there, for sale, by an English woman named Watson. The camels were entrusted to Gov. F. R. Lubbock, who has given a very interesting account of the "forty camels and their Arab attendants" in his memoirs. The camels were carried away from Galveston to the arid sections of Western Texas and New Mexico and there they were given little attention because the war broke out. The U. S. army moved North and the Southern troops had other matters of more importance to handle. Gradually they died out until now there are probably none of the successors of the original bands in existence, though from time to time stories have been told' of wild camels seen in the mountains sections of New Mexico.


BURNET COUNTY PIONEERS

Account of E. E. Brooks, and his wife pioneers of Burnet county, TX. He was born in a log cabin in Arkansas and came with his parents who settled in Burnet county where the town of Burnet now stands. It was then called Fort Crogan and was on the extreme border of civilization. Here they decided to stop, and carve a home out of the, then, wilderness of Texas. Brooks relates many thrilling experiences with Indians when it took men and mowen of courage to remain in their frontier homes and withstand the hardships of early days in that section. Before coming to Burnet, Brook's parents camped for a time near where Georgetown now stands, until they could decide upon a permanent location It was there they had their first experience with Indians...

Further Mentions: One day Mrs. Brooks with her three children, was left alone while her husband and some other men were off splitting out boards to build more room to the house (people in those days grew careless from the very familiarity of danger), and she walked to the door which was on the north side of the house overlooking the valley and saw a party of men on horseback, rapidly approaching. She thought at first they were cow hunters, but felt some uneasiness and soon took another look, when to her horror she discovered that they were Indians. She ran to her children and cried out in agony of her soul: "Indians!" By this time the Indians had dashed up and dismounted, filling the house and yard, there being about 40 In number. She had no hope to escape and could only await her fate. The eldest boy and girl crawled behind a large chest …

One of the Indians who seemed to be the leader said to: Mrs. Brooks in English: "We want bread", and although she thought she read her doom in their hideously painted faces and blood-thirsty looks, the heroic woman never lost her presence of mind. She implored the Indians who had addressed her in English to spare her children. The Indian who had spoken English came over and sat down on the other side of her with her baby in her arms. Then another one came and sat down on the other side of her and one in front. With their spears and tomahawks and war paint they presented a fearful sight. The one in front of her reached for her baby. (The baby is now Mrs. J. K. Daugherty of Marble Falls.' The mother pressed the baby to her bosom. They took hold of the child and tried to tear it from her, but with a mother's desperate effort to save her child, she clung to it, pleading for its life until she thought they would surely pull its little body in two. She let go and folded her arms in despair…

Further Mentions: Elihu Casner, who lived 6 miles from the Brooks farm * Wofford Johnson and family * Mr. Casner * Mrs. Johnson. threw her baby into a clump of bushes where it was found alive the following morning, being the only member of the family that escaped.


Old Mission San Saba

Old Mission San Saba lying a half mile up the San Saba river from Menard, Texas, once was the scene of a horrible massacre, priests and soldiers being slain, and only three escaping from the confines of its rock walls now scattered promiscuously about the place -a rather mute picture of the failure of the cause of Apache conversion. This is the story.

Further Mentions: Lipan Flat * Pedro Romero Terreros, conde de Regla * Padre Alanso Giraldo Terreros of the Querataro College * the colleges of Santo Cruz and San Fernando * Colonel Diego Ortiz Parilla * San Luis de las Amarlllas * Padre Terrorros * Padre Molina * Padre Terrorres was killed with a bullet, and Padre Santistevan was beheaded * the towns of Taovayases, and in the region of what later was called San Teodoro * Governor Martos * Felipe de Rabage * Padre Calahorra


Pioneer Recalls Indian Days

E. A (Pat) Paffrath, of Fort Worth, a veteran pioneer plainsman offers a narrative of Indian and buffalo hunting in the "seventies".

"When I went to the Panhandle in 1876," he said, "I drove a herd of cattle belonging to Smith & Adams from South Texas to Fort Belknap and after delivering them decided to go to the buffalo ranges and hunt. Buffalo were being killed in large numbers and there was good profit in the hides.

"I recall the incident of the rescue of the white woman, Cynthia Ann Parker, from the Indians," continued the old plainsman. "She was carried off by the Comanches when about 12 years old, and afterward, as the wife of Quanah Parker, the latter-day chief of the Comanches. She was a grown woman when rescued by Governor Sul Ross, who was then a Texas Ranger. Governor Ross and his followers had a fight with the Indians at a point between Quanah and Crowell, and found Cynthia Ann and her young daughter in the party. The chief, who was the father of Quanah Parker, was killed during the battle and the white woman was taken back to the settlement.

"The last Indian killed in Southwest Texas", continued the old plainsman, reminiscently, "was a Kiowa who was shot by Captain Arrington's rangers west of Quanah - in 1879, and his death brought about a raid by the Kiowas into that section in the way of reprisal. The last white man killed was named Earl and he was slain east of Quanah by the band of Kiowas which came down from the reservation to avenge the death of one of their number killed a thort time before in the same locality by the rangers. Earl had just arrived in the country and I met him and talked to him at the headquarters of the R2 ranch the night he was killed. He was traveling with Fred and Joe Estes and knew little about the habits of Indians. I warned the little pasty not to leave the ranch that night, as I had been informed that about thirty-five Kiowas was out on a raiding expedition bent on vengeance and that traveling might be dangerous. They did not listen to me, however, but continued their journey toward Quanah, and Earl lost his life.'


The First Coal Oil Lamp

By Joe Sappington

Old Bill Davis bought the thing at Houston on one of his freighting trips to that town. The news spread that Bill had bought a new-fangled lamp-a lamp that burned kerosene oil-and was liable to bust at any time and kill everybody within fifty feet of it. Bill invited all his neighbors living within ten miles of him to come on a certain day and see him light the lamp. Mother took us children to see it but cautioned us all the way not to get too close to it. I shall never forget the feelings of awe that came over me when we first came in sight of the house that harbored that deadly lamp.

Bill Davis was a daredevil if there ever was one, or at least that was what the neighbors said of him who came to see him light with his own hands that terrible engine of death. However, the most daring thing he did was to bring back a pint of kerosene oil with the lamp.

Just why it had not exploded and killed Bill and his steers and scattered his freight for a mile square was one of the mysteries of providence, said everybody who was there to see the lamp perform.


TEXAS RANGER HAS NO SNAP ENFORCING LAW

Brief and excellent summary of the historic legacy of the TEXAS RANGER.

In 1835 a colony of American pioneer settlers in what is now the Limestone county section of Texas, was raided by Indians who massacred nearly all the settlers, and carried a little baby girl, Cynthia Ann Parker, away to captivity. Other massacres following on the heels of this one, roused the settlers, who to protect themselves, formed the organization known as the Texas Rangers.

From their origin in 1835 until around 1874 the Rangers were principally occupied in ridding Texas of the Indian menace, a long uphill fight in which the Rangers were successful. At the battle of Adobe Walls in 1874, the Comanches under Quanah Parker, their famous chieftain, were routed, and the Indian power broken. It is interesting to note that Quanah Parker was the half-breed son of the little Cynthia Ann Parker whose abductions marked the inception of the Texas Rangers as a force. The defeat of Quanah marked the close of Indian warfare as the chief interest of the Rangers. No sooner had Texas become a comparatively safe place in which to live than its natural wealth began to attract renegade white men, gamblers, gunmen, cattle rustlers, and all the medley riffraff that follows the opening of a rich district to civilization. So the Rangers again had their hands full, this time suppressing white lawlessness instead of staving off red barbarism.

Further Mentions: Albert Bigelow Paine* Captain Bill McDonald * Captain Jack Hays * Mrs. Emma L. Lee, of Bandera * Capt. B. P. Lee


FEDERALS CAPTURED GALVESTON DURING WAR, BUT SOON LOST IT

When the Civil War began in 1861 the city of Galveston was poorly equipped for defense. She had no forts, arsenals, cannon and other war munitions and supplies. Undeterred by such deficiencies and the rapidly approaching conflict, the citizens were quick to rally, organize and provide expedients for meeting the emergency. An old mud or sand fort was constructed on the east end of the island, upon which three dummy cannon were mounted. These grim, frowning guns, without barrels and touch holes, served as a device for holding the federal blockade squadron at bay from May, 1862, to October of that year. On Oct. 4, the morning after two deserters had made known to the blockaders that fort was only supplied with "dummies," three gunboats cautiously entered the harbor, but landed no troops until the confederates had evacuated the city and taken position along the mainland at Virginia Point. Galveston did not remain in the hands of the federals but three months, lacking three or four days. Late in the fall of 1862 General J. Bankhead Magruder was assigned to the command of the department of Texas…

SOME NAMES MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME:

John Adams; A. F. Ainsworth; E. M. Ainsworth; Rev I. H. Ainsworth; Ainsworth; Pedro de Alvarado; H. B. Andrews ; Branch Archer; Capt Arrington; Allen C. Ater; Fred W. Ater; Robert Beard; William Beard; Samuel Bell; James E. Birch; Capt Brooks; E. E. Brooks; Mrs E. E. Brooks; Ada Brown; Archie Brown; Bill Brown; J. D. Brown; John H. Brown; K. W. Brown; Orville Brown; Thomas Brown; Tom Brown; Rufus Buck; Bullis; Aaron Burleson; Ed Burleson; Joe Burleson; David G. Burnet; ; Frank Sheriff Burns; Rube Burroughs; Ada Burtan; Bessie Burtan; Charles Burtan; Padre Calahorra; ; Erwen Cameron; Gen Canalis; F. G. Carnes; Carter; L. L. Cash; Elihu Casner; Gen T. J. Chambers; John Childers; Dr Church; Capt Thomas Clubb; J. D. Cocke; Mrs A. B. Cogdell; Cogdell; F. F. Collins; Martha Wallington; Mary Wallington; William Wallington; N. A. Cowdrey; Cross; Mrs J. K. Daugherty; Bill Davis; Gen E. J. Davis; Capt Dawson; Alonzo de Avila; Tom Dietrich; Henry Dillard; Anna Miss Dixon; Mrs Olive K. Dixon; Dobie; John J. Donaldson; Driggs; J. A. Drummond; G. A. Duerler; Robert Dunham; Robert H. Dunham; John Dusenberry; Duval; Capt Eastland; William N. Eastland; Monroe Edwards; W. G. Edwards; W. J. Ellis; B. H. Epperson; Juan de Escalante; Edmond Esta; Fred Estes; Joe Estes; J. D. Fauntleroy; Ben Maj Ficklin; Constable Foley; Bill Friedlein; Col Gathings; David Gathings; J. J. Gathings; James Gathings; James J. Gathings; Little Jim Gathings; Lizzie Gathings; Philip Gathings; Will Gathings; Gholson; Judge Gibson; Gillett; Crawford "Cherokee Bill" Goldsby; Chas Goodnight; Jay Gould; Sheriff Grace; Rebecca Miss Grant; Bishop Gregg; Hardin; Robert Harris; D. H. Hart; Jack Hayes; Hays; D. Headenberge; Gov Henderson; Dr Herff; Col A. M. Hobby; J. R. Hofheins; John Holliday; Gov Houston; ; Temple Col; Ed Howard; Gen George ; Col Domingo Huerta; Col Hughes; Bill Jackson; John C. Jacobs; Charlotte James; F. P. James; Frank James; Vinton L. James; Capt Jarden; Johnson; Gen Wofford Albert Sidney ; G. Wash Jones; Mary Jones; Thomas L. Jones; Col Jordan; Chief Jose Maria; J. H. Kampmann; Maj J. H. Kampmann; Mrs Jessie Keeslar; Pete King; Pres Lamar; Gen Walter P. Lane; Capt B. P. Lee; Mrs Emma L. Lee; Gen Robt E. Lee; Lehmann ; A. N. Leitnaker; Juan Velesquez de Leon; Lewis; Longley; Anna Siggs Lord; George Felstead; Annie McKinney Lowry; Reynolds ; F. R. Gov Lubbock; Capt Lyons; Gen Mackenzie; Lt Mackson; Gen J. Bankhead Magruder; Patrick Mahan; Marcy; Gov Martos; Maverick; Samuel ; Neill McAnelly; Robt D. McAnelly; James McCrea; Henry E. McCulloch; Henry S. McCulloch; McDonald; McKenzie; T. F. McKinney; Thomas F. McKinney; Gov Mexier; Milam; Col Millard; H. Col Millard; J. B. Miller; Gen Anson Mills; Gen Mirand; Padre Molina; Francisco Montejo; Bart Moore; Luke Moore; Dr Thomas Moore; Padre Morales; Francisco de Morla; J. E. Morrison; W. A. Morrow; Charles Mulhern; Mulhern; Chas Mulhern; Miss Mulhern; Robert D. Mulhern; Kate Miss Myers; Jim Newsome; Sol Nicholson; Mrs Mary Nelson Lowry Nolan; James Ogden; Cristobal de Olid; Juan de Onate; Barney Oppenheimer; Dan Oppenheimer; Francisco de Orozco; E. A. (Pat) Paffrath; Albert Bigelow Paine; Col Diego Ortiz Parilla; Isaac C. Parker; Col Patton; Peak; Preston Perry; Miss Eva Phifer; Proffer Plaeggue; Alonzo Hernandez de Portocarrero; Capt Thomas Pratt; Lt Pritchett; Col M. Pyron; Don Quijote; Felipe de Rabage; Rodrigo Rangel; James T. Ratcliff; Frederick Remington; Wilson Riddle; Charles Roberts; Saul A. Roberts; S. C. Robertson; Cap tRogers; Gov Ross; William Rowan; R. C. Ruckman; Reckless ; Rusk; Russell Sage; Gonzalo de Sandoval; Padre Santistevan; Joe Sappington; Francisco de Saucedo; Saunders; Gen David C. Maj Shanks; J. L. Shepherd; John Judge Shirley; Capt Skillman; Col C. C. Smith; Dr S. L. S. Smith; Dudley Snyder ; Tom Snyder; Rev Thomas Stanford; Belle Starr; Gen William Steele; Henry Stevens; Mrs John A. Stevens; Lola Stevens; Edgar Stillson; Alexander Sweet; J. R. Sweet; James R. Sweet; R. H. Taylor; Alonso Geraldo Padre Terreros; Pedro Romero Terreros; Padre Terrorres; Benjamin T. Terry; J. M. M. Thompson; Joe S. Thompson; Gen Waddy Thompson; Gertrude Thornhill; Capt William Tobin; J. M. Torrey; James Turnbull; Col A. Turner; Olan R. Van Zandt; J. M. Vance; James Vance; Susan Vince; S. H. Walker; Wallace; ; Tom Walling; Washington; John C. Judge West; Whaling; William H. Wharton; Dr Whipple; Rev Josiah Whipple; Col Wiggington; Col T. G. Williams; M. C. Wing; John G. Winter; Gov Wood; J. C. Maj Woods; J. E. Wool; Wortham; ColeYounger; Manuel Yturri; Ysleta.

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