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Vol 10 No. 05 - February 1933

E. S. Briant, a Texas Sheriff

Includes excellent old B&W photo of Hole-in-the-Wall-Gang. Account of JUDGE E. S. BRIANT, former sheriff of Sutton county, Texas. Briant served when train robbers and bank thieves found refuge in a thinly populated country, to be driven to other points by the courageous hand of Lige Briant. Notable among his exploits was the killing of Will Carver, at Sonora on April 2, 1902. Carver, a Bandera county raised man, who turned outlaw, was badly wanted for a number of crimes and was a dead shot with a revolver or rifle. In company with Ben Kilpatrick, George Kilpatrick, and others, Carver, camped near the town of Sonora and it is believed the gang intended to stage a bank robbery there. Carver and George Kilpatrick went into the town and entered a grain store to purchase some corn for their horses. The officers had been tipped off and Sheriff Briant, J. L. Davis, a former sheriff, Henry Sharp and W. D. Thomason, deputies, rushed into the grain store with guns drawn and the shooting commenced. Carver was killed instantly, and George Kilpatrick was shot fourteen times, but he recovered from his wounds. Ben Kilpatrick and the other members of the gang made their getaway. George Kilpatrick was kept in jail at Sonora for some time, but as there was no evidence against him to connect him with the gang's activities he was released. Carver and Ben Kilpatrick were members of the Butch Cassidy gang of outlaws, which operated in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Wyoming, Montana, and Nebraska. Lige Briant was absolutely fearless in the face of danger, but on the occasion of the killing of Carver he was accompanied by one man just as fearless as he, and that was J. L. Davis.

Account goes on to further mention: the Great Northern train near Wagner, Montana, the Southern Pacific train between Sonderson and Dryden, Texas., the Butch Cassidy and his Hole in the Wall gang robbed the First National, Bank at Winnemuca, Nevada, securing $32,000 in gold coin., Cassidy, (whose real name was George Parker) Harry Longbaugh, (alias the Sundance Kid,) Harvey Logan (alias Kid Curry,) Will Carver and Ben Kilpatriek, Oliver Thornton, a ranch hand on the Ed Dozier ranch, the T. Half Circle ranch, west of Sonora, with D. B. Cusenberry. Henry Sharp, W. D. Thomason and Bill Holland; Carver, a Bandera county native, was a man of undoubted courage-he was a shot of great skill and could kill a quail with pistol while loping along on a horse. Prior to his turning outlaw he had worked on the ranch of the late Ed Jackson, the 0-9 near Barnhart, along with the late W. L. Aldwell, Sonora banker; Bossie Sharp; Harry Longbaukh; Harvey Logan; Ole Beck;

Fort Lancaster, Crockett County, Texas

By Colonel M. L. Crimmins. Camp Lancaster was established August 20, 1855, half a mile above the junction of Live Oak Creek with the Pecos River. It was first garrisoned by Company H and K, First U. S. Infantry under the command of Captain Stephen D. Carpentar. The following day its . name was officially changed to Fort Lancaster and Captain. Carpentar remained in command to February, 1856, and again from March 31, 1858, to January 14, 1859. He was succeeded by Captain Roberts S. Granger, First Infantry, in February, 1856, who remained in command until March 31, 1858, and again resumed the command January 14, 1859, to March 19, 1861, on which date the post was abandoned and not again officially occupied, according to a letter received by me from the AdjutantGeneral's office dated Washington, April 21, 1932.

Further Mentions: Fort Terrett on the north fork of the Llano River; Captain and Mrs. R. S. Granger." May Humphrey Stacey; Mrs. Lydia Spencer Lane; Lieutenant Commander Beale; Captain A. B. Lee, Eighth U. S. Infantry; Howard Springs; about fifteen miles south of Fort Lancaster; Lieutenants Alexander M. Haskell and John P. Sherburne; Sergeant T. D. Denin, Company K, First Infantry; General David E. Twiggs; Fort Bliss, Fort Quitman, Fort Davis, Fort Stockton, Fort Lancaster, .and Camp Hudson; Major C. C. Sibley of the Third U S. Infantry; Colonel Earl Van Dorn, a late captain of the Second U. S. Cavalry; On April 20, 1872 Captain Michael Cooney and Lieutenant Frederick R. Vincent, Ninth U. S. Cavalry, and Troops A and K were attacked by Indians near Howards' Wells;

Karl August Wahrmund, Gillespie County Pioneer

KARL AUGUST WAHRMUND, was born in Germany March 23, 1832 and when he was thirteen years old he came to Texas with his parents in December, 1845, his parents settling at Fredericksburg in 1846, being among the first pioneers to settle there. They had to live in a tent until they could get a log cabin built. When Karl was sixteen years old he took his gun one morning and went out hunting. As he passes a neighbor's house he heard a woman calling for help. Going into the house to investigate, he found the woman sick in bed with the cholera, and her husband lying beside her dead. He hastened back home and secured help, and with his father and several neighbors, went back in an ox-cart and helped to gather all of the persons there who had died with the dreadful plague and buried them all in one big grave, while the women cared for the sick woman and others who were ill. The woman lived two more days and she died. On June 26, 1851, Karl August Wahrmund was married to Miss Dora Juenke when he was only nineteen years old. He and his bride moved to Bear Creek and settled on a little farm. By this time the Indians had become hostile, and, were dangerous, and the white settlers had to be constantly on the look-out for them.

Account goes on to relate further depredations and experiences of early settlers of Gillespie co. One morning Karl killed a big buffalo bull on the spot where the Fredericksburg High School building now stands; Henry Cram, a man who was working for him; Emil Wahrmund; Spindle Top, a hill about a half mile west of the village; a company of minute men was organized, with Frank von Stunke as Captain; Captain Stunke; After the Civil War Mr. Wahrmund moved his family to Tivydale, where they settled on a farm; Louis Wahrmund of ' Tivydale ; Frank Wahrmund of Petersburg; Christian Wahrmund of Doss; Theodore Wahr mund of Fredericksburg; Mrs. A. H. Pohl of Little Rock, Arkansas; Mrs. Wm. Althaus of Gold, Texas; Mrs. Simon Eckstein and Mrs. Ad. Hartman of Kerrville ; Mrs. Joe Kraus of Llano, Mrs. G. Williams of Blanco, and Mrs. Emil Heimann, Sr., of Fredericksburg.

Indian Nearly Got His Scalp

By J. Marvin Hunter. Account of C. McMeans, who was involved in a notable Indian fight on Devil's River, which happened in 1873, and in which an Indian came near getting his scalp. Account includes old B&W photo showing scars on McMean’s head where the Indians nearly made off with his scalp.

Further Mentions: the little town of Brackett; Jim Adams, who made up a cow outfit; Wiley Tarter;

Some Old Fashions and New in Texas

Mrs. Jordena Davis Duncan, Austin, Texas.

SO MANY THINGS have gone out of fashion in Texas! One may sigh for the good old days with their sincere friendships, their delightful hospitalities, their leisure hours, which made for repose of manner and a certain dignity. They gave time, too, for culture, for meditation, for gracious thoughts and deeds. These were the compensations for the good old days, when women must perforce "look well to the ways of their households"' -For were there not the carding, the spinning, and the weaving to be done before the clothing could be fashioned? And must not the tallow be rendered, so that candles could be made? Was it not the fashion then to dry the fruit, the vegetables; to fill the smoke house with meat and lard; to make the sorghum into molasses, and even into sugar, in the early days of Texas.

Further Mentions: Mrs. Dilue Harris; Her father was Dr. Rose; Dr. McLean; William B. Travis; Frontier styles of housekeeping, cooking, transportation, housing, schooling, the social life of pioneer Texas, etc.


Tells of how Houston came to be selected as the capitol of the young republic – a distinction the city enjoyed for about 3 years.


Speaks of a resolute group of patriotic men, assembled in convention at Washington on the Brazos, who declared Texas a "free, sovereign and independent republic." The men who fearlessly placed their lives and property in peril, at Washington on the Brazos, were of diverse origins. Some traced their ancestry to England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other European lands; some, were of Mexican descent. The delegates were actuated by the same principles which had moved the signers of the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776. They would not endure the rule of a tyrant, whatever his title. This is the story.

Memories of My Pioneer Life in Texas

A. G. Mills, Houston Texas. NOTE: THIS IS A LENGTHY AND DETAILED ACCOUNT OF EARLY ERATH AND COLEMAN AND TOM GREEN COUNTY HISTORY. Mills was born April 15th, in Jefferson county, Florida. His parents came to Texas in 1854 or '56, and settled in the Paluxy River in Erath county, and built the first log cabin on the stream. This is a lengthy and detailed account of early history of the area and speaks of reconstruction early activities of Ku Klux, and troubles, "On one occasion we started through the river bottom just at dusk. He warned me not to be frightened should we happen to meet the Ku Klux. It was a dark, cloudy night, and when we were about half way through the bottom, we really did meet the Ku Klux. One of them was mounted on a big mule, and although I was riding a good sized horse, I had to look up to see his head. He looked to be eight or nine feet tall, and wore a long flowing beard. His eyes were like balls of fire, and if Mike, the Irishman, had not been right by me, I certainly would have been after getting out of that vicinity. They went on down to the river a mile or so, and scared the wits out of a bunch of negroes".

Further Mentions: John Martin, Will Ish; My father was tax collector, and I believe sheriff, of Erath county for many years. He would send me over the county to put up notices in different precincts, stating when he would be thereto assess or collect taxes. At that time Erath county was as large as some of the eastern states. Later Hood and Summerville counties were taken from ' Erath county. At that time I knew every man in the county, and many of their families; One old man named Mr. Whitlock; an old man named Gocher built a grist and flour mill run by water power; Mr Stron; Dick Robertson; Bill Frazier; a man named Dolphmire; a place called Logue Crossing, on the Pecos River, a few miles above where Roswell is now located; McBride, and McCriderick, old John Chisum's head man; The hardest job I ever got into was with a Dr. Campbell, to drive five hundred steers to a place on the White River, on the border of Arkansas and Missouri; Mr. Crabtree; Crabtree had a neighbor by the name of Coleman; Mrs. McFadden; Coleman City; Rich Coffey, an old frontiersman; Colonel Perry, the biggest merchant in town; Jack Mills;


H. Welge, is believed to the only man living in West Texas today, who ever saw a live elk at liberty in this country. He saw this gigantic animal, full horned, near the Mason-Gillespie county line about 60 years ago. Mr. Welge, now 75, killed his first bear when 12 while hunting lost cattle and each year gets his deer. One season he went to the Delaware mountains…

Further Mentions: Threadgill Creek between Mason and Fredericksburg; the old Keller stone building near the Llano River South of Mason; Kerrville; Once he planned to go into business in Ozona when it first opened, and also at Sanderson. Later Captain Young of Fort Stockton was on a deal with him to sell the Young store in Stockton, but Mr. Welge did not buy. Once he owned the 13,000 acre Blue Hole ranch between Junction and Rocksprings but sold it. He lives in a big green house, once the property of a son-in-law of the late Captain Charles Schreiner. His father bought some of the first sheep to the southwest 60 years ago; Squaw Creek in Gillespie county.

Andrew Jackson Potter, the Fighting Parson

(Continued from Last Month) The following intensely interesting story of the well known Methodist circuit rider, who was born in Charito county, Missouri, April 3, 1830. He was the son of Joshua and Martha Potter, natives of Kentucky. In early years, wild, rebellious, routy and untamed, he eventually became a fierce Indian fighter, soldier, teamster, frontiersman, and preacher, whose fame and courageous reputation preceded him and whose respect was legendary. The story recites many of his thrilling experiences while in New Mexico, Arizona and Texas in those stirring days when the Indian and the desperado made life unsafe. This is the first account of several installments in Frontier Times.

Further Mentions: Captain Bowfin; Major Rucker; I was very much surprised to find women and children in their camp-a strange sight in that distant wilderness. On inquiry I learned that they were Mormons of the `Olive Branch Division'-opposed to Brigham Young-and were enemies of polygamy. They were going to the mouth of the Colorado River, in Lower California, where they had agreed to concentrate and build a Large City, the nucleus of an independent kingdom. Mr. Bruster, their prophet, had gone with a party one year in advance to that chosen location. They had a book containing the revelations of God to their prophet about their journey across the plains. It did not allow them to resist the attacks of the Indians. The Lord was to shelter them from harm in all that perilous road, and no enemy, should molest them. They believed that the great Rio Bravo del Norte, or Rio Grande River, was the silvery line that was to separate the righteous from the wicked; that all east of it was the land of Bethsullie, and land of the wicked, which is now Texas. They predicted the downfall of the United States. But she is still erect. They taught that all west of that grand old stream was the home of the righteous, which the wicked shall never inherit, as God had set it apart for the saints of the latter days. May be so. Mexico and California may yet be sainted; a little town called Anton Chico, on the west side of the Pecos; Santa Rita del Cavera; Fort Fillmore, about sixty miles above El Paso; York's Creek, in Hays county; Rev. I. G. John; on the twenty-fifth day of August, 1853, was married to Miss Emily C. Guin, a native of Missouri; that great revival at Croft's Prairie; Smithwick; Alum Creek, in Bastrop county; Old Brother Lees; The mayor, Judge O'Connor; a small society on Pin Oak Creek, in a neighborhood about ten miles east of the Colorado river; Rev J. W. Allen, who traveled the Bastrop circuit in 1858 and 1859; old Moses Gage, a Primitive Baptist; Professor Connor; Rev. J. G. Mabry; The great drought of 1859 will never be forgotten by the settlers in Texas, as they merely got through it by the "skin of their teeth." Mr. Potter's resorting to the ax, maul, and wedge, is another evidence of the energy of the man in proportion to the demand of circumstances. (Continued Next Month.)


Sixty-eight years ago a fair-haired, blue-eyed child played about the ranch home of her grandmother, Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, in Young county. Recently a 70-year-old woman returned to her home in Mountain View Oklahoma, after a visit in the county of her birth with friends who for more than 65 years had believed her dead.

The fair-haired child and the 70 year-old woman were Millie Durgan, who was stolen by Kiowa Indians during one of the frequent raids that scourged this section of Texas until the late 70's. She was adopted by a Kiowa chief, Aperian Crow, and his wife A-Mah-Ti and reared in the customs and traditions of the Kiowa tribe, knowing nothing of the home from which she was taken as a 2-year old child and forgetting the new words of her native language that her baby tongue had mastered. It was not until about two years ago that Millie Durgan discovered the secret members of the Kiowa tribe had guarded carefully. She learned the story of that autumn day October 13, 1864, when a band of several hundred Kiowa and Comanche Indians rode swiftly through the valley of the Brazos on a mission of wrath and destruction. From ranch to ranch they sped, killing, burning, plundering. Their first victim was Joel Meyer who was surprised while searching for a yoke of stray oxen. On down the river they went to the ranch owned by Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick. After slaving Mrs. Fitzpatrick's daughter, Mrs. Sue Durgan, and a small negro boy the savages took as captive Mrs. Fitzpatrick and her son. Joe Carter; Mrs. Durgan's two small daughters, Millie and Lottie; a negro woman, wife of Birt Johnson, and her two children.

By noon the warning had spread from ranch to ranch in time for many of the scattered frontiersmen to place their wives and children in safety. A group of the men, however, were attacked at the Bragg ranch, where fighting continued until nightfall.

As dusk began to fall the Indians withdrew, after adding three men; Tom Wilson, Jim McCoy and Miles McCoy-to their list of captives. A short distance from the Bragg ranch then encountered 15 rangers of Ed Burleson's company who were headed for Fort Belknap after following the trail of Indian raiders to the Pease river. Trapping them between Elm and Boggy creeks, the savages killed five of the rangers, before the skirmish ended, the victims including Ed R. Outlaw, Edward H. Crump, Jacob R. Tally, Lewis R. Rober and David S. Ellis.

The Indians fled to their hiding places in the Wichita mountains with their seven captives. Tiny Millie Durgan attracked the fancy of Aperian Crow and A-Mah-Ti, who had no children of their own, and they immediately adopted her, pledging members of the tribe to tell all inquirers that the child was dead. Joe Carter, Millie's young uncle, was slain somewhere along the route. All of the other captives, however, were safely returned a few months later as the result of the courage and persistence of the negro, Brit Johnson, who succeeded in the trailing the Indians and bartering for the release of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, Lottie Durgan and his own wife and two children.

During the next decade civilization outposts advanced and strengthened and the marauding Indians moved from place to place until finally brought under submission on their Oklahoma reservation. With her foster parents Millie Durgan experienced all of the hardships of these sudden flights of encounters with soldiers and many other dangers. She learned to prepare the buffalo meat, tan hides, make tepees-in short all of the arts and customs -of the Kiowa became hers.

Ignorant of her identity Millie Durgan grew to womanhood and became the wife of a Kiowa chief named Goombi. Now that she knows her ancestry, she has…

Further Mentions: Henry C. Williams, pioneer Newcastle resident; Mr. and Mrs. George Hunt; etc.


A rough cedar cross two miles south east of Goliad marks the probable burial spot of 331 men brutally massacred by Mexican troops on the morning of March 27, 1836.

For several decades all tracks of the Goliad massacre were lost. William B. Bennett, Jr., of Goliad, a sophomore and pre-med student at the University of Texas, stumbled upon the spot. In the loose earth thrown up by gophers he found a charred bone. His father, a dentist, identified it as a portion of the human jaw bone. They marked the spot with a cross…

Further Mentions: General Thomas F. Rusk; Dr. Joseph H. Barnard, assistant surgeon of Fannin's army, one of the few who escaped the massacre; Judge J. A. White; ruins of the College of Aranama



Henry Adamietz; I. E. Adamietz; Jim Adams; O. L. Adams; W. L. Aldwell; Isabel Allardyce; Rev J. W. Allen; Mrs Wm Althaus; J. C. Anderwald; Frank Andrews ; Chief Aperian Crow; J. A. Bachman; Rev J. E. Bagley; C. Stanley Banks; Dr Joseph H. Barnard; Barnes; E. G. Bartberger; Bass; ; R. L. Batte; Lt Com Beale; John P. Bear; Ole Beck; Geo S. Bender; William B. Bennett Jr; Bertillion; Mrs C. Y. Billings; T. N. Blackwell; Ulmont Blalack; Parker Blunt; R. C. Boales; Capt Bowin; Mrs E. J. Braley; Bill Brazier; E. S. Briant; Briant; Lige Briant; Briant; Sheriff Briant; Charles H. Brient; A. K. Briggs; Brininstool; Herbert Brinkmann; Frank Brown; J. Leonard; O. Y. Leonard; E. Buck; Ed Burleson; Dr Campbell; Capt Stephen D. Carpentar; Charles Carroll; Joe Carter; W. R. Carver; Will Carver; ; Cassidy; Anton Chico; Chisum; Clark; P. H. Coates; Mrs P. H. Coates; Coffey; Ruth Coit; Ben R. Collins; Prof Connor; Capt Michael Cooney; Henry Cram; Rev William Carroll Crawford; Crimmins; Crockett; Edward H. Crump; D. B. Cusenberry; Tate Dalrymple; J. L. Davis; Margaret Davis; Mrs W. H. H. Davis; Deaver; Sgt T. D. Denin; Sue V. DeVany; W. O. Dickerson; Walter E. Dickerson; Ed Dozier; J. H. Driver; Jordena Davis Duncan; Lottie Durgan; ; Sue Durgan; Mrs Simon Eckstein; R. J. Edmondson; Emmett Edwards; J. B. Edwards; David S. Ellis; Chris Emmett; Julia Engelhardt; Levi Evans; Chas L. Fagan; Fannin; Walter Ferguson; J. W. Finley; Elizabeth Fitzpatrick; J. R. Fletcher; W. R. Fletcher; Bill Frazier; H. L. Freeman; Mrs Albert Friedrich; Moses Gage; M. S. Garrettson; Daniel E. Genard; Chas A. Gianini; A. M. Gildea; Chief Goombi; Capt G. Keith Gordon; Mrs B. F. Gourley; Grady; Capt R. S. Granger; Mrs R. S. Granger; Capt Roberts S. Granger; Dr James Grant; J. Wiley Green; Grey; Emily C. Guin; Judge H. E. Haass; August Haenal; R. A. Hairston; C. W. Hanley; H. C. Hansen; Mrs Dilue Harris; Estelle Harris; Mrs Ad Hartman; Lt Alexander M. Haskell; J. M. Head; John A. Head; Mrs Emil Heimann; Mrs C. G. Henry; Harry Hertzberg; Mrs E. Hicks; F. A. Hicks; Alec Hillman; Ted Hillman; Mrs John F. Hodges; Lieu Holbert; C. P. Holiman; Bill Holland; R. E. Homann; A. S. Hooe; Houston; ; George Howland; George Hunt; Mrs George Hunt; Hunter; ; Will Ish; Andrew Pres Jackson; Ed Jackson; Will A. Jackson; George W. Jayroe; Rev I. G. John; Birt Johnson; Mrs Birt Johnson; Mack Johnson; Mattie Jones; Dora Juenke; J. T. Kelley; Judge Jeff T. Kemp; ; George Kilpatrick; Mrs J. M. Kincaid; Mrs Joe Kraus; Stuart N. Lake; Lamar; Lane; Capt A. B. Lee; Emma L. Lee; Lemley; Hough LeStourgeon; P. W. Locklin; Harvey (Kid Curry) Logan; Harry Longbaugh; Harry (Sundance Kid) Longbaugh; Longley; C. S. Longwell; G. H. Lonkey; J. E. Lord; W. J. Maass; Rev J. G. Mabry; Mrs A. L. Mansfield; Mrs F. A. Mansfield; Frank H. Mansfield; John Martin; J. E. Matthews; Mrs Albert Maverick; Mrs Maury Maverick; Will H. Mayes; A. S. McComb; Jim McCoy; Miles McCoy; Dr McLean; Dr John H. McLean; D. C. McMeans; McMeans; J. F. W. Meyer; Joel Meyer; Raymond M. Mickle; Col Miller; H. C. Col Miller; A. G. Mills; Jack Mills; Paul M. Mitchell; Mrs Paul M. Mitchell; A. R. Moore; J. W. Morris; Murphy; Wm M. Neifert; J. P. Nixon; Dr P. I. Nixon; H. M. Nowlin; Fannie Becton Nunnally; Judge O'Connor; William Ogden; Ostrander; Ed R. Outlaw; J. E. Palmer; George (Butch Cassidy) Parker; Perry; T. H. Philips; Mrs A. H. Pohl; A. J. Potter; ; A. V. Pue; M. W. Purcell; Capt Quantrell; Rayburn; Leed Rector; Walter Rees; Alfred Reinarz; Franklin Reynolds; W. A. Rhea; J. A. Richolt; Lee Risinger; Lewis R. Rober; Dick Robertson; Bonnie TomRobinson; Dr Rose; ; Maj Rucker; Clive Runnels; Gen Thomas F. Rusk; Boyd Ryle; D. L. Sansom; Santa Anna; Schon; J. J. Schrade; Schreiner; Louis Schrop; Mrs L. A. Scott; W. W. Scott; Dr C. E. Scull; Bosie Sharp; Henry Sharp; S. A. Shellenberger; Lt John P. Sherburne; A. N. Shipp; J. W. Short; Joe Jr Short; C. C. Maj Sibley; L. V. Smith; Tevis Clyde; C. H. Spreckels; May Humphrey Stacey; Mrs Henry Stevens; S. A. Stevens; Tom Stinnett; Jack Storms; Tom Stron; Lt Col C. G. Sturtevant; John Sutherland; Jacob R. Tally; Tankersley; Wiley Tarter; Thos Teakle; Jack Thomas; W. D. Thomason; Dr Sam E. Thompson; R. M. Thomson; Oliver Thornton; Gabriel Tibiletti; J. L. Tiner; Gen Travis; Col William B. Travis; Twiggs ; Underwood; Col Earl Van Dorn; T. W. Vardell; Lt Frederick R. Vincent; Capt Frank von Stunke; Christian Wahrmund; Emil Wahrmund; Frank Wahrmund; Karl Wahrmund; Karl August Wahrmund; Louis Wahrmund; Theodore Wahrmund; John T. Walker; Clyde Wantland; R. Stocks Watson; B. R. Weaver; A. Webber; R. L. Weibling; May Weldon; H. Welge; Mrs J. S. Westfall; Ira L. Wheat; Judge J. A. White; Mrs G. Williams; Henry C. Williams; Talmage Williams; Mrs Edward Allen Wilson; H. G. Wilson; Tom Wilson; J. F. Winans; Andrew Winkler; John Wolf; Olive O. Wood; J. P. Woolsey; Judge Granville Wright; John Wright; Capt Brigham Young; Col A. J. Zilker; Zilke Zielenski

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